Configuring Dependency Injection in AngularJS

Dependency injection is the act of supplying values or object instances (dependencies) to target objects from outside of the target object. In many (most?) cases this is automated by a framework, such as AngularJS.

This means that a given target object does not create its own dependencies, through the use of the new keyword or other creation methods.

By creating and managing dependencies outside of an object, it makes it much easier to switch out that dependency as needed. This is very useful when you are writing your unit tests, and can have many advantages in larger systems.

There are only three ways for an object to resolve its dependencies:

  • internally, via the new operator
  • lookup via a global variable (requirejs is an example)
  • the dependency is passed to the object

The third option is dependency injection, and it is the preferred approach in AngularJS apps.

Defining your dependencies

Dependency injection is a core feature of AngularJS. There are 3 approaches to defining your dependencies, ordered by complexity from least to most:

  • module.service
  • module.factory
  • module.provider

note: AngularJS also provides value and constant dependencies. We aren't going to get into those two today.

Both service and factory are abstractions that sit on top of provider. Using factory and provider will give you more flexibility, but are more verbose.

Before we look at how to use these tools, let's take a look at the AngularJS source code and understand how they work.

Interlude into the AngularJS internals

If you're a geek like me, you might be curious as to what is going on under the hood when you declare dependencies.

I mentioned earlier that service and factory were abstractions on top of provider. To show you exactly how that works, we need to open up injector.js in src/auto/ folder in the AngularJS source code:

function provider(name, provider_) {
  if (isFunction(provider_) || isArray(provider_)) {
    provider_ = providerInjector.instantiate(provider_);
  if (!provider_.$get) {
    throw $injectorMinErr(
      "Provider '{0}' must define $get factory method.",
  return (providerCache[name + providerSuffix] = provider_);

function factory(name, factoryFn) {
  return provider(name, { $get: factoryFn });

function service(name, constructor) {
  return factory(name, [
    function($injector) {
      return $injector.instantiate(constructor);

As you can see at a glance, service calls factory which calls provider. So, when it gets right down to it, these three methods are the exact same thing. Convenient!

Almost the exact same thing.

There is a subtle difference. The AngularJS service uses $injector.instantiate on the constructor function that you pass in. This means that internally the service creates an instance of your function with the new operator. This will provide the resulting object a valid 'this' scope.

Using factory doesn't call new on the function that is passed in. When using factory, the function that is passed in is called directly, and an object is expteded to be returned.

Hat tip to @ThomasBurleson for pointing this out. This can be confusing if encountered in the wild. Now you know. Half the battle.

Let's start with the simplest use case. The service.

Defining a service in AngularJS

A service instantiates a constructor function.

(function(angular) {
  var module = angular.module('myApp.myModel', []);

  var MyModel = function MyModel(asyncService) {
    return {
      someApi: function() {
        return asyncService.getStuff();

  module.service('myModel', ['asyncService', MyModel]); //simple option

In this example we are creating a module that will store a model that grabs data from some asynchronous service. The myModel service will return an instance of MyModel when it is requested for injection by other objects. The instance of MyModel is a singleton, and only one instance will ever be created and used by the application.

This example could actually be even simpler if the injectable doesn't require any additional dependencies.

module.service('myModel', MyModel); //most simple option

module.service requires only two arguments. A string for its unique name, and a constructor to create an instance of. This approach is useful, and most of the time is probably all you need for your application.

When you need more flexibility than the service provides, it is time to look at factory.

Defining a factory in AngularJS

A factory returns an object.

(function(angular) {
  var module = angular.module('myApp.myModel', []);

  var MyModel = function MyModel(asyncService) {
    return {
      someApi: function() {
        return asyncService.getStuff(); //promise?

  module.factory('myModel', [
    function(asyncService) {
      //could do some stuff here
      return new MyModel(asyncService);

Using a factory provides additional flexibility. By providing a factory function over a straight constructor, you are provided with the opportunity to do some work prior to returning the object. You are also in charge of creating the instance that you want returned, unlike service, which creates the instance for the constructor function you provide.

The above example is obviously not doing anything interesting, but when you need to do some work prior to resolving a dependency, a factory can be a good choice.

In the real world, I've used factory to provide a configurable mock data "mode". The factory function would check to see which mode the app was in, and dynamically switch between mock and real data. This can be incredibly handy when you want to work with out depending on external services.

Note that the factory function will be called exactly one time. Any work you do will only be done once, and myModel will be whatever your factory function returns. In this case, we are simply returning an instance of MyModel, but a factory can return objects and functions. Use that to your advantage.

The last way to define dependencies is with provider. Let's look at that next.

Defining a provider with AngularJS

(function(angular) {

    var module = angular.module("myApp.myModel", []);

    var MyModel = function MyModel() {
        return {
            asyncService: null,
            someApi: function {
                return this.asyncService.getStuff(); //promise?


    var myModelProvider = {
        model: new MyModel();
        $get: ['asyncService', function (asyncService) {
            this.model.asyncService = asyncService; //"manual" dependency injection
            return this.model; //resolved for the lifetime of app

    modules.provider('myModel', myModelProvider);

As you can see, provider is lower level. Explicit and verbose. The $get function is used by AngularJS internally for the injector. A provider is required to have a $get function. When using factory (and service as well) the $get function is defined for you.

For all practical purposes you will likely never need to use provider unless you are a control freak. In most circumstances a factory or service will suffice, but it is nice to know that provider is there, if you needed that level of explicit control for some reason.

One thing to note about providers is that the provider is available during configuration phase of a module. While I haven't found a specific use case for this, it is something to have in your toolbox.

A little trick for dynamic dependencies

I mentioned before that with a factory (or provider) you can return an object or a function. As it turns out, this can be very useful if you need to dynamically update a resolved dependency. Here's a simple example using a factory.

module.factory('myDynamicInjectable', function() {
  var count = 0;
  return function() {
    count = count + 1;
    return count;

This is an extremely trivial example, but now when you inject myDynamicInjectable and call it, it will return the freshly incremented count.

warning: don't do this. There are two things wrong with this example. It is storing state with the count variable, and then it is manipulating state. This isn't the appropriate location for either of those activities! A better solution would be to create an object that stored that state and provided a nice API for manipulating it.

A more realistic (useful) use of this might look like this:

module.factory('getCurrentShoppingCart', [
  function(getCurrentAccount) {
    return function() {
      //getCurrentAccount is also a factory that returns a function
      //perhaps a user can have multiple accounts?
      return getCurrentAccount().shoppingCart;

There is a ton of dynamic flexibility you can take advantage of when returning functions from both the provider and factory approaches. I'd proceed with caution. You could easily abuse this flexibility. Don't use this approach to manipulate and/or store state in the providers! The job of these tools is to resolve dependencies, and should be used only to resolve dependencies.


AngularJS provides several ways to configure dependency injection. From the simple service to the more flexible factory and provider approaches. You should have a solid understanding of how these work under the hood, and what situations are appropriate for each method.

P.S. This article is the expansion of the answer to a question that was emailed to me. If you have any questions, I'd love to help you out. My email and twitter can be found below, and I answer them all.


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